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Tutorial 3

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Submitted on: 10/18/2000 4:04:30 PM
By: Amin Patel1 
Level: Beginner
User Rating: By 49 Users
Compatibility:C++ (general)

Users have accessed this article 34532 times.
 
(About the author)
 
     This tutorial has been made for new c++ programmers. Unfortunately their are many great minds out there but they don't have access to free and quality c++ tutorials.

 
 
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By using this article, you agree to the following terms...   
1) You may use this article in your own programs (and may compile it into a program and distribute it in compiled format for languages that allow it) freely and with no charge.   
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Tutorial 3- By: Amin Patel     About Me  
c, c++, c__,tutorial,been,made,give,introduction,programm

 Planet Source Code -                      Start with a prayer to God, that you “Succeed in learning C++"

 
 
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Previous Tutorials:
Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2


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Thank you for coming to Planetsourcecode 
Style: In the first tutorial some people had pointed out that I had not declared main() to return void, this is no longer a standard expected from programmers. Get main() to return int & simply return 0; as the last line in main().
<-- content_start-->

Note: According to the latest standards <iostream.h> is not required it can be simply written as <iostream>, with the standard code that shall be used through out the tutorial (I hope!).

If the standard code in the tutorial does not work on your compiler and you still wish to use <iostream> instead of <iostream.h> just add a line

using namespace std; 

& if this does not work you have an old compiler which cannot work with these standards.

 
 <-- Begin Search Code -->
    Now Pay attention, with a little explanation and review of the first tutorial we shall proceed. Some people requested for the theoretical details.
- Preprocessor 

Preprocessing is done when the #include command is used to add header files. The actual preprocessing is done much before the compiler reaches the code section of your program. The #include command is one of the possible actions of preprocessing.

All Preprocessing is done with #(Hash/Pound Symbol)

- #include

This a directive to the preprocessor, with the help of the " Include Hash/Pound " the file after the directive s read.

Eg: #include <filename> or #include <filename.h

- IO

When generally the topic of input is raised, the first thought that comes to a person's mind is that input means input from a keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc and is outputted to a device such as a disk, monitor (screen) or printer & this thought is technically correct; in explaining the concept of input-output.

- Input is done in streams of bytes or a sequence from devices (e.g.. keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc). 

-In Output bytes flow from the output devices.

A program is divided into bits, bytes, a byte may represent ASCII characters.

The C++ iostream library has many I/O capabilities but for now we are only concerned with a few.

The <iostream> header file defines the cin, cout objects.

 


 I think the theoretical explanation of the beginning of a program should be enough for now. Let us now get to the 'real' juicy part of programming. (Duh - Writing the code)

- 2 Input/Output Objects ( In relation to the tutorial)

cout (It ain't pronounced as Cowt, its pronounced as C  Out)

The cout operator has already been explained in tutorial 1 but here is a brief review + additions.

cout is a keyword, which is exclusively reserved for C++ defined purposes. It is used to output data info to the standard output device.

cout<<"This is Text"; 

By the way Comments( // ) have been explained previously.&nbs; // p;

// << is  known as stream insertion operator. 

// "This is Text" is displayed to the screen.

//The << is also known as left shift operator, it is used after the cout command.

cout<<text; 

//The data from a variable text is displayed to the screen.

//Variables have not yet been explained at this point.

 

 

 

   
Now to explain the next topic cin & datatype (int), we shall attempt to understand by studying a simple program. - Adding 2 integers

Non Standard Version

#include <iostream>

int main()
{
int one, int two, int sum;
cout<<"Please enter the first number"; //Requests for first integer
cin>>one; //accepts first integer

cout<<"Please enter the second number"; //Requests for second integer
cin>>two; //accepts second integer.

sum = one + two; // one & two get added and the value gets assigned to sum.
cout<<"The sum:"<<sum; //sum of 2 int's is displayed

return 0; //program has ended
}

Standard Version

#include <iostream>

using std::cout;
using std::cin;


int main()
{
int one, int two, int sum;
cout<<"Please enter the first number"; //Requests for first integer
cin>>one; //accepts first integer

cout<<"Please enter the second number"; //Requests for second integer
cin>>two; //accepts second integer.

sum = one + two; // one & two get added and the value gets assigned to sum.
cout<<"The sum:"<<sum; //sum of 2 int's is displayed

return 0; //program has ended
}

<-- content_end-->

_______________________________________________________________________

  If you like this code please give me a good message.  If you have gained some knowledge from this tutorial please make me happy, by giving me an “excellent rating”. That's all I ask.

_______________________________________________________________________

 Tutorial 3 - By: Amin Patel

 

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Other User Comments
10/22/2000 6:14:48 AM:Picklezz
Can't yu give a tutorial in starting making your first app?
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10/22/2000 7:43:37 AM:Amin
Refer tutorial 1
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10/25/2000 10:50:33 PM:Kuvrio
It would be grate to have your 3 tutorials on a ZIP file to download once.
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10/26/2000 4:37:42 PM:Leprechaun
I think this is a good idea, I wish I had found something like this a year ago. But, me being a smart aleck, I have to say that you should have a \n at the beginning of your ouput, and a space at the end like: cout <<
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10/27/2000 1:12:16 PM:Amin Patel
Ok, from next time I shall start. Thanks for the comments ( Zip and /n+space)
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10/29/2000 11:31:16 AM:Treker
Today's programming standards in C++ using IOSTREAM are that you use an endl, not a \n to mark a newline.<BR> cout << "Blah..." << endl; would be the ideal format.
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10/30/2000 12:14:03 AM:Amin Patel
Ok
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10/31/2000 3:46:51 AM:R 2 k
I really love these tutorials they make me love c++ now.
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11/4/2000 9:04:02 PM:mud
its easier if while using cout <<endl <<...; you also incorporate the \n command where convenient. (i.e.: cout <Keep the Planet clean! If this comment was disrespectful, please report it:
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11/4/2000 9:06:48 PM:mud
however, it can be confusing to use both so itd be easier to learn if you just you endl (\n versus '\n' can be confusing)
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11/6/2000 6:18:48 AM:Daniel Krusky
These Tutorials are really good. Do you have any knowledge of NetBIOS ?
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12/30/2000 3:32:22 AM:mike14mon
THIS IS GREAT!!! thanks im new at c++ very new ive spent long aggervating days reading c++ in 21 tuts, im looking foward to more articals from you ...thanks again
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4/4/2001 10:57:50 AM:Smiley
hey i love these tutorials but im having a problem. when i run these once it has ended it closes out really fast and in this one i cant see the ending number and in the first tutorial i couldn't see anything cause it closed out so fast. how can i make it stay open?
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4/21/2001 11:49:18 PM:Ryan
Don't worry, that happened to me when I first began learning. Here, try this. <-- start code --> #include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h> int main() { //print to screen cout <<
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5/10/2001 4:27:43 PM:Bhavendra
Hi Amin, Thanks very much and putting ur effort on C++ and sharing ur knowledge. It's very helful for me I don't know anything abt c++ now I'm understand how to write programm in C++. If u have any goodu documents for beginners please let me know. thanks onece again. Wihs u all the best.
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5/24/2001 12:22:08 AM:FTWJFIA
About the program closing realy fast when run - I had this problem too. I did some research and found a solution add: #include <conio.h> and at the end of your program add: system(
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5/24/2001 12:23:42 AM:FTWJFIA
Sorry. At the end of your program add: system("PAUSE"); Happy Coding!!
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11/11/2001 3:13:28 PM:imn0thing
with your three tutorials combined, it makes the worst introduction to the language i have ever seen. it is not even good coding practice to declare multiple variables on a single line. but if you do, it should be like this. int one, two, sum; not int one, int two, int sum;
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11/16/2001 2:22:44 PM:vorticon
well simple and easy ot understand but there should be more explanation in the 3rd tutorial. now a VB proggrammer is a begginner C++ proggrammer thx
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11/16/2001 4:02:50 PM:MerDeNoms
Also If you want to use any of the
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11/16/2001 4:04:03 PM:MerDeNoms
If you want to use any of the "system" commands, you will need to add the directory "#include<stdlib.h>" That will allow you to use the commands: system("pause"); <---Pause the program untill you hit enter. system("cls"); <---Clear Screen wich is great for cleaning up screens on menu driven programs.
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12/2/2001 5:57:30 AM:ji
thanks amin. great work! and to the intellectually impared 'imn0thing'... once again, i think that i can speak for most of the beginners read mr. patel's works... you're absolutely right... 'youAREn0thing'.
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2/21/2002 7:51:54 AM:Deepsmeg
II must say that I agrree w/ imn0thing. I bought sams teach yourself C++ in 24 hours, and the first 3 chapters have given me a far clearer understanding than these tutorials.
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4/18/2002 11:41:09 PM:zenthor
i don't see why you guys are compareing a free tutorial to a book you payed for also whne i compile these tutorial with vc++6 i get a debug error: Loaded 'ntdll.dll', no matching symbolic information found. Loaded 'C:\WINDOWS\system32\kernel32.dll', no matching symbolic information found. The thread 0x5B0 has exited with code 0 (0x0). The program 'C:\Documents and Settings\zenthor1\Desktop\ctut101\Debug\ helloworld.exe' has exited with code 0 (0x0). how do i fix this?
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4/29/2002 5:39:23 PM:CodeLearner
Excellent tutorial, thanks. :)
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7/24/2002 4:23:48 AM:Whittal
I love these tutorials. keep 'em coming. They are exacly what i was looking for. Nice and easy to understand and you explain everything.
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8/11/2002 8:16:50 PM:Jaimin Patel
How long does it take you to learn C++ if you go by the tut's?
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