UNKNOWN --************************************** -- for :dbo.DoubleMetaPhone --************************************** Based off original C++ code and algorithm by Lawrence Philips. Open Source code. --************************************** -- Name: dbo.DoubleMetaPhone -- Description:Creates a better phonetic matching key than Soundex. -- By: Keith Henry -- -- -- Inputs:proper name to generate key for -- -- Returns:char(10) string containf two char(5) keys The first 5 chars are the most common pronouciation, and the last 5 are the next most common. -- --Assumes:This is based off a c++ article that described a better phonetic algorithm than soundex. I re-wrote the algorithm in t-SQL (the languages are too different to simply translate) so that I could use it with our UK Market File. soundex is OK, but it is over 100 years old now and it misses an awful lot of names that should match. -- --Side Effects:More load than soundex, but still much better. --This code is copyrighted and has limited warranties. --Please see http://www.Planet-Source-Code.com/xq/ASP/txtCodeId.519/lngWId.5/qx/vb/scripts/ShowCode.htm --for details. --************************************** CREATE FUNCTION dbo.DoubleMetaPhone (@str varchar(70)) RETURNS char(10) AS BEGIN /*######################################################################### Double Metaphone Phonetic Matching Function This reduces word to approximate phonetic string. This is deliberately not a direct phonetic Based off original C++ code and algorithm by Lawrence Philips (lphilips_AT_verity.com) Published in the C/C++ Users Journal: http://www.cuj.com/articles/2000/0006/0006d/0006d.htm?topic=articles Original Metaphone presented in article in "Computer Language" in 1990. Reduces alphabet to The 14 constonant sounds: "sh""p"or"b" "th" | | | X S K J T F H L M N P R 0 W Drop vowels except at the beginning Produces a char(10) string. The left(@result,5) gives the most common pronouciation, right(@result,5) gives the commonest alternate. Translated into t-SQL by Keith Henry (keithh@lbm-solutions.com) #########################################################################*/ Declare @original varchar(70), @primary varchar(70), @secondary varchar(70), @length int, @last int, @current int, @strcur1 char(1) , @strnext1 char(1) , @strprev1 char(1), @SlavoGermanic bit set @SlavoGermanic = 0 set @primary = '' set @secondary = '' set @current = 1 set @length = len(@str) set @last = @length set @original = lTrim(isnull(@str,'')) + ' ' set @original = upper(@original) if patindex('%[WK]%',@str) + charindex('CZ',@str) + charindex('WITZ',@str) <> 0 set @SlavoGermanic = 1 -- skip this at beginning of word if substring(@original, 1, 2) in ('GN', 'KN', 'PN', 'WR', 'PS') set @current = @current + 1 -- Initial 'X' is pronounced 'Z' e.g. 'Xavier' if substring(@original, 1, 1) = 'X' begin set @primary = @primary + 'S'-- 'Z' maps to 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' set @current = @current + 1 end if substring(@original, 1, 1) in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') begin set @primary = @primary + 'A'-- all init vowels now map to 'A' set @secondary = @secondary + 'A' set @current = @current + 1 end while @current <= @length begin if len(@primary) >= 5 break set @strcur1 = substring(@original, @current, 1) set @strnext1 = substring(@original, (@current + 1), 1) set @strprev1 = substring(@original, (@current - 1), 1) if @strcur1 in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y', ' ', '''', '-') set @current = @current + 1 else if @strcur1 = 'B' -- '-mb', e.g. 'dumb', already skipped over ... begin set @primary = @primary + 'P' set @secondary = @secondary + 'P' if @strnext1 = 'B' set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = '' begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = 'C' begin if @strnext1 = 'H' begin if substring(@original, @current, 4) = 'CHIA' -- italian 'chianti' begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end else begin if @current > 1 -- find 'michael' and substring(@original, @current, 4) = 'CHAE' begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' end else begin if @current = 1 -- greek roots e.g. 'chemistry', 'chorus' and (substring(@original, @current + 1, 5) in ('HARAC', 'HARIS') or substring(@original, @current + 1, 3) in ('HOR', 'HYM', 'HIA', 'HEM') ) and substring(@original, 1, 5) <> 'CHORE' begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end else begin if ( substring(@original, 0, 4) in ('VAN ', 'VON ') -- germanic, greek, or otherwise 'ch' for 'kh' sound or substring(@original, 0, 3) = 'SCH' ) or substring(@original, @current - 2, 6) in ('ORCHES', 'ARCHIT', 'ORCHID') -- 'architect' but not 'arch', orchestra', 'orchid' or substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) in ('T', 'S') or ( ( @strprev1 in ('A','O','U','E') or @current = 1 ) and substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) in ('L','R','N','M','B','H','F','V','W',' ') -- e.g. 'wachtler', 'weschsler', but not 'tichner' ) begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end else begin if (@current > 1) begin if substring(@original, 1, 2) = 'MC' -- e.g. 'McHugh' begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' end end end end end set @current = @current + 2 end --ch logic else begin if @strnext1 = 'C' -- double 'C', but not McClellan' and not(@current = 1 and substring(@original, 1, 1) = 'M' ) begin if substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) in ('I','E','H') -- 'bellocchio' but not 'bacchus' and substring(@original, @current + 2, 2) <> 'HU' begin if ( @current = 2 -- 'accident', 'accede', 'succeed' and @strprev1 = 'A' ) or substring(@original, @current - 1, 5) in ('UCCEE', 'UCCES') begin set @primary = @primary + 'KS' set @secondary = @secondary + 'KS' end else begin -- 'bacci', 'bertucci', other italian set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' -- e.g. 'focaccia' if substring(@original, @current, 4) = 'CCIA' end set @current = @current + 3 end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' -- Pierce's rule set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' set @current = @current + 2 end end else begin if @strnext1 in ('K','G','Q') begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if @strnext1 in ('I','E','Y') begin if substring(@original, @current, 3) in ('CIO','CIE','CIA') -- italian vs. english begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' end set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if @strnext1 = 'Z' -- e.g. 'czerny' and substring(@original, @current -2, 4) <> 'WICZ' begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if @current > 2 -- various gremanic and substring(@original, @current - 2,1) not in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') and substring(@original, @current - 1, 3) = 'ACH' and ((substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) <> 'I') and ((substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) <> 'E') or substring(@original, @current - 2, 6) in ('BACHER', 'MACHER') ) ) begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if @current = 1 -- special case 'caesar' and substring(@original, @current, 6) = 'CAESAR' begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin -- final else set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' if substring(@original, @current + 1, 2) in (' C',' Q',' G') -- name sent in 'mac caffrey', 'mac gregor' set @current = @current + 3 else set @current = @current + 1 end end end end end end end end else if @strcur1 = 'D' begin if @strnext1 = 'G' begin if substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) in ('I','E','Y') begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' -- e.g. 'edge' set @secondary = @secondary + 'J' set @current = @current + 3 end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'TK' -- e.g. 'edgar' set @secondary = @secondary + 'TK' set @current = @current + 2 end end else begin if substring(@original, @current, 2) in ('DT','DD') begin set @primary = @primary + 'T' set @secondary = @secondary + 'T' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'T' set @secondary = @secondary + 'T' set @current = @current + 1 end end end else if @strcur1 = 'F' begin set @primary = @primary + 'F' set @secondary = @secondary + 'F' if (@strnext1 = 'F') set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = 'G' begin if (@strnext1 = 'H') begin if @current > 1 and @strprev1 not in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end else begin if not( (@current > 2 -- Parker's rule (with some further refinements) - e.g. 'hugh' and substring(@original, @current - 2, 1) in ('B','H','D') ) -- e.g. 'bough' or (@current > 3 and substring(@original, @current - 3, 1) in ('B','H','D') ) -- e.g. 'broughton' or (@current > 4 and substring(@original, @current - 4, 1) in ('B','H') ) ) begin if @current > 3 -- e.g. 'laugh', 'McLaughlin', 'cough', 'gough', 'rough', 'tough' and @strprev1 = 'U' and substring(@original, @current - 3, 1) in ('C','G','L','R','T') begin set @primary = @primary + 'F' set @secondary = @secondary + 'F' end else begin if @current > 1 and @strprev1 <> 'I' begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end else begin if (@current < 4) begin if (@current = 1) -- 'ghislane', 'ghiradelli' begin if (substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) = 'I') begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' set @secondary = @secondary + 'J' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end end end end end end end set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if (@strnext1 = 'N') begin if @current = 1 and substring(@original, 0,1) in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') and @SlavoGermanic = 0 begin set @primary = @primary + 'KN' set @secondary = @secondary + 'N' end else begin -- not e.g. 'cagney' if substring(@original, @current + 2, 2) = 'EY' and (@strnext1 <> 'Y') and @SlavoGermanic = 0 begin set @primary = @primary + 'N' set @secondary = @secondary + 'KN' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'KN' set @secondary = @secondary + 'KN' end end set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if substring(@original, @current + 1, 2) = 'LI' -- 'tagliaro' and @SlavoGermanic = 0 begin set @primary = @primary + 'KL' set @secondary = @secondary + 'L' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if @current = 1 -- -ges-, -gep-, -gel- at beginning and (@strnext1 = 'Y' or substring(@original, @current + 1, 2) in ('ES','EP','EB','EL','EY','IB','IL','IN','IE', 'EI','ER') ) begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'J' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if (substring(@original, @current + 1, 2) = 'ER' -- -ger-, -gy- or @strnext1 = 'Y' ) and substring(@original, 1, 6) not in ('DANGER','RANGER','MANGER') and @strprev1 not in ('E', 'I') and substring(@original, @current - 1, 3) not in ('RGY','OGY') begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'J' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if @strnext1 in ('E','I','Y') -- italian e.g. 'biaggi' or substring(@original, @current -1, 4) in ('AGGI','OGGI') begin if (substring(@original, 1, 4) in ('VAN ', 'VON ') -- obvious germanic or substring(@original, 1, 3) = 'SCH' ) or substring(@original, @current + 1, 2) = 'ET' begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end else begin -- always soft if french ending if substring(@original, @current + 1, 4) = 'IER ' begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' set @secondary = @secondary + 'J' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' end end set @current = @current + 2 end else begin -- other options exausted call it k sound set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' if (@strnext1 = 'G') set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end end end end end end end else if @strcur1 = 'H' begin if (@current = 1 -- only keep if first & before vowel or btw. 2 vowels or @strprev1 in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') ) and @strnext1 in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') begin set @primary = @primary + 'H' set @secondary = @secondary + 'H' set @current = @current + 2 end else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = 'J' begin if substring(@original, @current, 4) = 'JOSE' -- obvious spanish, 'jose', 'san jacinto' or substring(@original, 1, 4) = 'SAN ' begin if (@current = 1 and substring(@original, @current + 4, 1) = ' ' ) or substring(@original, 1, 4) = 'SAN ' begin set @primary = @primary + 'H' set @secondary = @secondary + 'H' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' set @secondary = @secondary + 'H' end set @current = @current + 1 end else begin if @current = 1 begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' -- Yankelovich/Jankelowicz set @secondary = @secondary + 'A' set @current = @current + 1 end else begin if @strprev1 in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') -- spanish pron. of .e.g. 'bajador' and @SlavoGermanic = 0 and @strnext1 in ('A','O') begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' set @secondary = @secondary + 'H' set @current = @current + 1 end else begin if (@current = @last) begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' set @secondary = @secondary + '' set @current = @current + 1 end else begin if @strnext1 in ('L','T','K','S','N','M','B','Z') and @strprev1 not in ('S','K','L') begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' set @secondary = @secondary + 'J' set @current = @current + 1 end else begin if (@strnext1 = 'J') -- it could happen set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end end end end end end else if @strcur1 = 'K' begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' if (@strnext1 = 'K') set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = 'L' begin if (@strnext1 = 'L') begin if (@current = (@length - 3) -- spanish e.g. 'cabrillo', 'gallegos' and substring(@original, @current - 1, 4) in ('ILLO','ILLA','ALLE') ) or ((substring(@original, @last - 1, 2) in ('AS','OS') or substring(@original, @last, 1) in ('A','O') ) and substring(@original, @current - 1, 4) = 'ALLE' ) set @primary = @primary + 'L' --Alternate is silent else begin set @primary = @primary + 'L' set @secondary = @secondary + 'L' end set @current = @current + 2 end else begin set @current = @current + 1 set @primary = @primary + 'L' set @secondary = @secondary + 'L' end end else if @strcur1 = 'M' begin set @primary = @primary + 'M' set @secondary = @secondary + 'M' if substring(@original, @current - 1, 3) = 'UMB' and (@current + 1 = @last or substring(@original, @current + 2, 2) = 'ER' ) -- 'dumb', 'thumb' or @strnext1 = 'M' set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 in ('N','') begin set @primary = @primary + 'N' set @secondary = @secondary + 'N' if @strnext1 in ('N','') set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = 'P' begin if (@strnext1 = 'H') begin set @current = @current + 2 set @primary = @primary + 'F' set @secondary = @secondary + 'F' end else begin -- also account for 'campbell' and 'raspberry' if @strnext1 in ('P','B') set @current = @current + 2 else begin set @current = @current + 1 set @primary = @primary + 'P' set @secondary = @secondary + 'P' end end end else if @strcur1 = 'Q' begin set @primary = @primary + 'K' set @secondary = @secondary + 'K' if (@strnext1 = 'Q') set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = 'R' begin if @current = @last -- french e.g. 'rogier', but exclude 'hochmeier' and @SlavoGermanic = 0 and substring(@original, @current - 2, 2) = 'IE' and substring(@original, @current - 4, 2) not in ('ME','MA') set @secondary = @secondary + 'R' --set @primary = @primary + '' else begin set @primary = @primary + 'R' set @secondary = @secondary + 'R' end if (@strnext1 = 'R') begin if substring(@original, @current, 3) = 'RRI' --alternate Kerrigan, Corrigan set @secondary = @secondary + 'R' set @current = @current + 2 end else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = 'S' begin if substring(@original, @current - 1, 3) in ('ISL','YSL') -- special cases 'island', 'isle', 'carlisle', 'carlysle' set @current = @current + 1 --silent s else begin if substring(@original, @current, 2) = 'SH' begin -- germanic if substring(@original, @current + 1, 4) in ('HEIM','HOEK','HOLM','HOLZ') begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' end set @current = @current + 2 end else begin -- italian & armenian if substring(@original, @current, 3) in ('SIO','SIA') or substring(@original, @current, 4) in ('SIAN') begin if @SlavoGermanic = 0 begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' end set @current = @current + 3 end else begin if (@current = 1 -- german & anglicisations, e.g. 'smith' match 'schmidt', 'snider' match 'schneider' and @strnext1 in ('M','N','L','W') -- also, -sz- in slavic language altho in hungarian it is pronounced 's' ) or @strnext1 = 'Z' begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' if @strnext1 = 'Z' set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end else begin if substring(@original, @current, 2) = 'SC' begin if substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) = 'H' -- Schlesinger's rule begin if substring(@original, @current + 3, 2) in ('OO','ER','EN','UY','ED','EM') -- dutch origin, e.g. 'school', 'schooner' begin if substring(@original, @current + 3, 2) in ('ER','EN') -- 'schermerhorn', 'schenker' begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'SK' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'SK' set @secondary = @secondary + 'SK' end set @current = @current + 3 end else begin if @current = 1 and substring(@original, 3,1) not in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') and substring(@original, @current + 3, 1) <> 'W' begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' end set @current = @current + 3 end end else begin if substring(@original, @current + 2, 1) in ('I','E','Y') begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'SK' set @secondary = @secondary + 'SK' end set @current = @current + 3 end end else begin if @current = 1 -- special case 'sugar-' and substring(@original, @current, 5) = 'SUGAR' begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' set @current = @current + 1 end else begin if @current = @last -- french e.g. 'resnais', 'artois' and substring(@original, @current - 2, 2) in ('AI','OI') set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' --set @primary = @primary + '' else begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' end if @strnext1 in ('S','Z') set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end end end end end end end else if @strcur1 = 'T' begin if substring(@original, @current, 4) = 'TION' begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' set @current = @current + 3 end else if substring(@original, @current, 3) in ('TIA','TCH') begin set @primary = @primary + 'X' set @secondary = @secondary + 'X' set @current = @current + 3 end else if substring(@original, @current, 2) = 'TH' or substring(@original, @current, 3) = 'TTH' begin if substring(@original, @current + 2, 2) in ('OM','AM') -- special case 'thomas', 'thames' or germanic or substring(@original, 0, 4) in ('VAN ','VON ') or substring(@original, 0, 3) = 'SCH' begin set @primary = @primary + 'T' set @secondary = @secondary + 'T' end else begin set @primary = @primary + '0' set @secondary = @secondary + 'T' end set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if @strnext1 in ('T','D') begin set @current = @current + 2 set @primary = @primary + 'T' set @secondary = @secondary + 'T' end else begin set @current = @current + 1 set @primary = @primary + 'T' set @secondary = @secondary + 'T' end end end else if @strcur1 = 'V' if (@strnext1 = 'V') set @current = @current + 2 else begin set @current = @current + 1 set @primary = @primary + 'F' set @secondary = @secondary + 'F' end else if @strcur1 = 'W' begin -- can also be in middle of word if substring(@original, @current, 2) = 'WR' begin set @primary = @primary + 'R' set @secondary = @secondary + 'R' set @current = @current + 2 end else if @current = 1 and (@strnext1 in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') or substring(@original, @current, 2) = 'WH' ) begin if @strnext1 in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') -- Wasserman should match Vasserman begin set @primary = @primary + 'A' set @secondary = @secondary + 'F' set @current = @current + 1 end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'A' -- need Uomo to match Womo set @secondary = @secondary + 'A' set @current = @current + 1 end end else if (@current = @last -- Arnow should match Arnoff and @strprev1 in ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U', 'Y') ) or substring(@original, @current - 1, 5) in ('EWSKI','EWSKY','OWSKI','OWSKY') or substring(@original, 0, 3) = 'SCH' begin set @secondary = @secondary + 'F' --set @primary = @primary + '' set @current = @current + 1 end else if substring(@original, @current, 4) in ('WICZ','WITZ') -- polish e.g. 'filipowicz' begin set @primary = @primary + 'TS' set @secondary = @secondary + 'FX' set @current = @current + 4 end else set @current = @current + 1 -- else skip it end else if @strcur1 = 'X' begin if not (@current = @last -- french e.g. breaux and (substring(@original, @current - 3, 3) in ('IAU', 'EAU') or substring(@original, @current - 2, 2) in ('AU', 'OU') ) ) begin set @primary = @primary + 'KS' set @secondary = @secondary + 'KS' end --else skip it if @strnext1 in ('C','X') set @current = @current + 2 else set @current = @current + 1 end else if @strcur1 = 'Z' begin if (@strnext1 = 'Z') begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if (@strnext1 = 'H') -- chinese pinyin e.g. 'zhao' begin set @primary = @primary + 'J' set @secondary = @secondary + 'J' set @current = @current + 2 end else begin if (substring(@original, @current + 1, 2) in ('ZO', 'ZI', 'ZA')) or (@SlavoGermanic = 1 and (@current > 1 and @strprev1 <> 'T' ) ) begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'TS' end else begin set @primary = @primary + 'S' set @secondary = @secondary + 'S' end end set @current = @current + 1 end end else set @current = @current + 1 end return cast(@primary as char(5)) + cast(@secondary as char(5)) end